## Supersonic Flow Past a Wedge

## Supersonic Flow Past a Wedge

This verification test case studies steady inviscid compressible flow past a wedge at an incident angle of 15 degrees. As the supersonic flow (Ma = 2.5) hits the wedge a sharp oblique shock wave is formed, resulting in a reduced downstream flow velocity. The simulation uses the inviscid compressible Euler equations to …

## Temperature Loading of a Tapered Cylinder

## Temperature Loading of a Tapered Cylinder

This validation test case models temperature loading of a tapered hollow thick cylinder with a spherical bottom flange section. The solid object is assumed to be clamped vertically, but allowed to expand horizontally due to a linear temperature gradient. The stress in the z-direction at the bottom inner point is …

## Cooling Effect of Adding Fins

## Cooling Effect of Adding Fins

This example models heated steam at a constant temperature of 120 C flowing through a aluminium pipe with 3 cm diameter. Heat loss to the surrounding cool air (at 25 C and heat transfer coefficient of h = 60 W/m2 C) is computed for a plain pipe, and also a pipe where 200 cooling fins per meter has been added. The …

## Space-Time Transformation of Heat Conduction

## Space-Time Transformation of Heat Conduction

This example considers transient heat diffusion in a solid 1 m rod where one end is kept at T = 25 degrees and the other subject to constant heat flux q_n = 1. This one-dimensional time dependent problem is transformed to a static two dimensional one. The computed results can both be compared with the analytical …

## Microstrip Transmission Line

## Microstrip Transmission Line

A shielded electrical microstrip transmission line is fixed to a substrate and placed in a shielded container of air. The simulation applies a known voltage to the strip to calculate the resulting capacitance and compares this with the theoretical result. The problem assumes symmetry in the lengthwise direction so that …

## Thermal Bridge

## Thermal Bridge

This is a benchmark test case for modeling the steady-state temperature distribution in a thermal bridge in building construction. The model consists of a 6 mm concrete slab subjected to an outside temperature of 0 °C and heat loss due to convection. The inside features a 4 cm layer of air enclosed within a 1.5 mm …

## Orthotropic Heat Conduction

## Orthotropic Heat Conduction

This is an example of modeling anisotropic heat conduction in an orthotropic material where a heated solid bar suddenly is cooled by submerging it in a cool fluid. The material features different thermal conductivities in the x and y-directions which is accounted for by modifying the diffusion term in the heat transfer …