## Temperature Loading of a Tapered Cylinder

## Temperature Loading of a Tapered Cylinder

This validation test case models temperature loading of a tapered hollow thick cylinder with a spherical bottom flange section. The solid object is assumed to be clamped vertically, but allowed to expand horizontally due to a linear temperature gradient. The stress in the z-direction at the bottom inner point is …

## Cooling Effect of Adding Fins

## Cooling Effect of Adding Fins

This example models heated steam at a constant temperature of 120 C flowing through a aluminium pipe with 3 cm diameter. Heat loss to the surrounding cool air (at 25 C and heat transfer coefficient of h = 60 W/m2 C) is computed for a plain pipe, and also a pipe where 200 cooling fins per meter has been added. The …

## Space-Time Transformation of Heat Conduction

## Space-Time Transformation of Heat Conduction

This example considers transient heat diffusion in a solid 1 m rod where one end is kept at T = 25 degrees and the other subject to constant heat flux q_n = 1. This one-dimensional time dependent problem is transformed to a static two dimensional one. The computed results can both be compared with the analytical …

## Microstrip Transmission Line

## Microstrip Transmission Line

A shielded electrical microstrip transmission line is fixed to a substrate and placed in a shielded container of air. The simulation applies a known voltage to the strip to calculate the resulting capacitance and compares this with the theoretical result. The problem assumes symmetry in the lengthwise direction so that …

## Thermal Bridge

## Thermal Bridge

This is a benchmark test case for modeling the steady-state temperature distribution in a thermal bridge in building construction. The model consists of a 6 mm concrete slab subjected to an outside temperature of 0 °C and heat loss due to convection. The inside features a 4 cm layer of air enclosed within a 1.5 mm …

## Orthotropic Heat Conduction

## Orthotropic Heat Conduction

This is an example of modeling anisotropic heat conduction in an orthotropic material where a heated solid bar suddenly is cooled by submerging it in a cool fluid. The material features different thermal conductivities in the x and y-directions which is accounted for by modifying the diffusion term in the heat transfer …

## Turbulent Flow Over a Backwards Facing Step (OpenFOAM)

## Turbulent Flow Over a Backwards Facing Step (OpenFOAM)

Flow over backwards facing steps are classic computational fluid dynamics test problems, and are often used for validation of simulation codes. This test problem consists of studying how the flow field reacts to a sudden expansion in a channel. The expansion will cause a break in the flow and a recirculation or …