This multiphysics model illustrates natural convection effects in a unit square
domain using the Boussinesq approximation. The model involves a Navier-Stokes
equations physics mode, representing the fluid flow with solid wall or no-slip
boundary conditions everywhere. In addition a heat transfer physics mode is
added to model the temperature field . The top and bottom boundaries are
perfectly insulated while the left boundary is prescribed a unit temperature and
the right zero.
The physics modes are two way coupled through the vertical source term
in the Navier-Stokes equations, Pr·Ra·T, and the
velocities transporting the temperature coming directly from the fluid
flow. First, the Prandtl and Rayleigh numbers are set to Pr = 0.71
and Ra = 103, respectively, after which the Ra number
will be increased to 104. The references contain
benchmark reference and comparison results for a number of quantities
such as maximum velocities and the Nusselt number [1,2].
This model is available as an automated tutorial by selecting Model
Examples and Tutorials… > Multiphysics > Natural Convection
in a Square Cavity from the File menu. Or alternatively, follow
the linked step-by-step instructions.
 D. de Vahl Davis, Natural Convection of Air in a Square Cavity - A Benchmark
Solution, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids, vol. 3, pp. 249-264, 1983.
 D. de Vahl Davis and I. P. Jones, Natural Convection of Air in a Square
Cavity - A Comparison Exercise, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids, vol. 3, pp.